Stacks In Java

Stack is a linear data structure ( an abstract data type ) with a fixed capacity. Linear data structure which is simple to use and allows adding and removing elements in a particular order i.e. a last-in-first-out (LIFO)  order. Every element enters the stack from the top and leaves from the […]


Network Programming The term network programming refers to writing programs that execute across multiple devices (computers), in which the devices are all connected to each other using a network. Such programs enable processes to communicate with each other across a network. Communication over a network takes place through protocols like […]

Network Programming with Java Sockets

Network Programming with Java Sockets The package of the J2SE API contains a collection of classes and interfaces that provide the low-level communication details required for network programming. At the core of Java’s networking support is the concept of a socket. A socket is a software endpoint that establishes […]

Indexed sequential file organization and Chaining

Indexed sequential access file combines both sequential file and direct access file organization. In indexed sequential access files, records are stored randomly on a direct access device such as a magnetic disk by a primary key. This file has multiple keys. These keys can be alphanumeric in which the records […]

File Organization

Files The file is a collection of records related to each other. The file size is limited by the size of the memory and storage medium. There are two important features of the file: 1. File Activity 2. File Volatility File activity: It specifies that percent of actual records proceed […]

Transactions in DBMS

What are Transactions in DBMS? A small unit of a program that contains several low level tasks are called Transactions. Basic Concept of transaction : A transaction is a unit of program execution that accesses and possibly updates various data items in a database. Example : Transaction to transfer ₹50 […]

Shell Script

A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix/Linux shell. A shell is a command-line interpreter and typical operations performed by shell scripts include file manipulation, program execution, and printing text. Types of Shell scripts are: The Bourne Shell The C Shell The Korn Shell The […]

SQL Commands

SQL commands: SQL commands are the instructions, given to a database to perofrm some functions and tasks there are also called queries, these commands or rather queries can be used to search the database and can perform functions like creation, updation, delete, replace operations. SQL commands are divided into four […]

Polymorphism in Java

The word polymorphism means having many forms. This feature of object-oriented programming allows us to perform a single action in different ways.  In other words, polymorphism allows you to define one interface and have many implementations. The word “poly” means many and “morphs” means forms, which means multiple forms. In Java, […]