Indexed sequential file organization and Chaining

Indexed sequential access file combines both sequential file and direct access file organization. In indexed sequential access files, records are stored randomly on a direct access device such as a magnetic disk by a primary key. This file has multiple keys. These keys can be alphanumeric in which the records […]

File Organization

Files The file is a collection of records related to each other. The file size is limited by the size of the memory and storage medium. There are two important features of the file: 1. File Activity 2. File Volatility File activity: It specifies that percent of actual records proceed […]

Transactions in DBMS

What are Transactions in DBMS? A small unit of a program that contains several low level tasks are called Transactions. Basic Concept of transaction : A transaction is a unit of program execution that accesses and possibly updates various data items in a database. Example : Transaction to transfer ₹50 […]

Shell Script

A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix/Linux shell. A shell is a command-line interpreter and typical operations performed by shell scripts include file manipulation, program execution, and printing text. Types of Shell scripts are: The Bourne Shell The C Shell The Korn Shell The […]

SQL Commands

SQL commands: SQL commands are the instructions, given to a database to perofrm some functions and tasks there are also called queries, these commands or rather queries can be used to search the database and can perform functions like creation, updation, delete, replace operations. SQL commands are divided into four […]

Polymorphism in Java

The word polymorphism means having many forms. This feature of object-oriented programming allows us to perform a single action in different ways.  In other words, polymorphism allows you to define one interface and have many implementations. The word “poly” means many and “morphs” means forms, which means multiple forms. In Java, […]

Database Management System

What is DBMS? DBMS stands for Database Management System which is a software used to manage databases. For Example, MySQL, Oracle, etc. are some of the popular commercial DBMS today, it primarily functions as an interface between users and the database at the same time managing the data in order […]

Insertion in a Doubly Linked List

Singly Linked List is the list that holds the links to the next node and so on, each node points to the next node, but the main drawback is it does not point to the last node in the list, Such a linked representation is called Doubly Linked List Representation […]

Program To Implement Queue in Java

A Queue is a linear data structure, following a particular order FIFO (First In First Out) where we can insert elements at one end and remove elements in the other end just like a human queue from the supermarket or railways ticket booking counters. In the previous article, we saw […]

Garbage Collection in Java

Garbage Collection in Java Garbage Collection means and as the name implies freeing up of space by the waste objects or garbage to avoid memory leaks. Since objects are dynamically allocated by using the new keyword how these objects are destroyed and their memory is released for reallocation. Some languages […]